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Table. Naming Simple Compounds.
Part III: STOICHIOMETRY.
Counting by Weighing. Atomic Masses. The Mole. Molar Mass. Learning to Solve Problems. Percent Composition of Compounds. Determining the Formula of a Compound. Chemical Equations. Balancing Chemical Equations. Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products. The Concept of Limiting Reagent.
Part IV: TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY.
Water, the Common Solvent.
The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes. The Composition of Solutions. Types of Chemical Reactions. Precipitation Reactions. Describing Reactions in Solution. Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions. Acidâ€“Base Reactions. Oxidationâ€“Reduction Reactions 1.Balancing Oxidationâ€“Reduction Equations.
Part V: GASES.
Pressure. The Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles, and Avogadro. The Ideal Gas Law. Gas Stoichiometry. Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures. The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases. Effusion and Diffusion. Real Gases. Characteristics of Several Real Gases. Chemistry in the Atmosphere.
Part VI: THERMOCHEMISTRY.
The Nature of Energy. Enthalpy and Calorimetry. Hess’s Law. Standard Enthalpies of Formation. Present Sources of Energy. New Energy Sources.
Part VII: ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND PERIODICITY.
Electromagnetic Radiation. The Nature of Matter. The Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen. The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom. Quantum Numbers. Orbital Shapes and Energies. Electron Spin and the Pauli Principle. Polyelectronic Atoms. The History of the Periodic TTable. The Aufbau Principle and the Periodic TTable. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties. The Properties of a Group: The Alkali Metals.
Part VIII: BONDING: GENERAL CONCEPTS.
Types of Chemical Bonds. Electronegativity. Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments. Ions: Electron Configurations and Sizes. Energy Effects in Binary Ionic Compounds. Partial Ionic Character of Covalent Bonds. The Covalent Chemical Bond: A Model. Covalent Bond Energies and Chemical Reactions. The Localized Electron Bonding Model. Lewis Structures. Exceptions to the Octet Rule. Resonance. Molecular Structure: The VESPR Model.
Part IX: COVALENT BONDING: ORBITALS.
Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model. The Molecular Orbital Model. Bonding in Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules. Bonding in Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules. Combining the Localized Electron and Molecular Orbital Models 4.
Part X: LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS.
Intermolecular Forces. The Liquid State. An Introduction to Structures and Types of Solids. Structure and Bonding in Metals. Carbon and Silicon: Network Atomic Solids Circuits.Molecular Solids. Ionic Solids.
Part XI: PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS.
Solution Composition. The Energies of Solution Formation. Factors Affecting Solubility. The Vapor Pressures of Solutions. Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression. Osmotic Pressure. Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions.
Part XII: CHEMICAL KINETICS.
Reaction Rates. Rate Laws: An Introduction. Determining the Form of the Rate Law. The Integrated Rate Law. Reaction Mechanisms. A Model for Chemical Kinetics. Catalysis.
Part XIII: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM.
The Equilibrium Condition. The Equilibrium Constant. Equilibrium Expressions Involving Pressures. Heterogeneous Equilibria. Applications of the Equilibrium Constant. Solving Equilibrium Problems.Le ChÃ¢telier’s Principle.
Part XIV: ACIDS AND BASES.
The Nature of Acids and Bases. Acid Strength. The pH Scale. Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions. Calculating the pH of Weak Acid Solutions. Bases. Polyprotic Acids. Acidâ€“Base Properties of Salts. The Effect of Structure on Acidâ€“Base Properties. Acidâ€“Base Properties of Oxides. The Lewis Acidâ€“Base Model. Strategy for Solving Acidâ€“Base Problems: A Summary.
Part XV: ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA.
Solutions of Acids or Bases Containing a Common Ion. Buffered Solutions. Buffering Capacity. Titrations and pH Curves. Acidâ€“Base Indicators.
Part XVI: SOLUBILITY AND COMPLEX ION EQUILIBRIA.
Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product. Precipitation and Qualitative Analysis. Equilibria Involving Complex Ions.
Part XVII: SPONTANEITY, ENTROPY, AND FREE ENERGY.
Spontaneous Processes and Entropy. Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The Effect of Temperature on Spontaneity. Free Energy. Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions. Free Energy and Chemical Reactions. The Dependence of Free Energy on Pressure. Free Energy and Equilibrium. Free Energy and Work.
Part XVIII: ELECTROCHEMISTRY.
Balancing Oxidationâ€“Reduction Equations. Galvanic Cells. Standard Reduction Potentials. Cell Potential, Electrical Work, and Free Energy. Dependence of Cell Potential on Concentration. Batteries. Corrosion. Electrolysis. Commercial Electrolytic Processes.
Part XIX: THE NUCLEUS: A CHEMIST’S VIEW.
Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay. The Kinetics of Radioactive Decay. Nuclear Transformations. Detection and Uses of Radioactivity. Thermodynamic Stability of the Nucleus. Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion. Effects of Radiation.
Part XX: THE REPRESENTATIVE ELEMENTS.
A Survey of the Representative Elements. The Group 1A Elements. The Chemistry of Hydrogen. The Group 2A Elements. The Group 3A Elements. The Group 4A Elements. The Group 5A Elements. The Chemistry of Nitrogen. The Chemistry of Phosphorus. The Group 6A Elements. The Chemistry of Oxygen. The Chemistry of Sulfur. The Group 7A Elements. The Group 8A Elements.
Part XXI: TRANSITION METALS AND COORDINATION CHEMISTRY.
The Transition Metals: A Survey. The First-Row Transition Metals. Coordination Compounds. Isomerism. Bonding in Complex Ions: The Localized Electron Model. The Crystal Field Model. The Biologic Importance of Coordination Complexes 982. Metallurgy and Iron and Steel Production.
Part XXII: ORGANIC AND BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES.
Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons. Alkenes and Alkynes. Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon Derivatives. Polymers. Natural Polymers.
Appendix 1: MATHEMATICAL PROCEDURES.
Exponential Notation. Logarithms. Graphing Functions. Solving Quadratic Equations. Uncertainties in Measurements.
Appendix 2: THE QUANTITATIVE KINETIC MOLECULAR MODEL.
Appendix 3: SPECTRAL ANALYSIS.
Appendix 4: SELECTED THERMODYNAMIC DATA.
Appendix 5: EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS AND REDUCTION POTENTIALS.
Values of Ka for Some Common Monoprotic Acids. Stepwise Dissociation Constants for Several Common Polyprotic Acids. Values of Kb for Some Common Weak Bases. Ksp Values at 25_C for Common Ionic Solids. Standard Reduction Potentials at 25_C (298K) for Many Common Half-Reactions.
Appendix 6: UNITS AND CONVERSION.
Answers to Selected Exercises.