Test Bank for Health Psychology, 2nd Edition, Catherine A. Sanderson, ISBN : 978-1-118-32443-1, ISBN : 978-0-470-12915-9, ISBN : 9781118324431, ISBN : 9780470129159, Downloadable Digital Test Bank Files

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Test Bank for Health Psychology, 2nd Edition, Catherine A. Sanderson, ISBN : 978-1-118-32443-1, ISBN : 978-0-470-12915-9, ISBN : 9781118324431, ISBN : 9780470129159

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Table of Contents

Preface v

CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1

What Is Health Psychology? 2

Health Psychology in the Real World: Ban Smoking in Public Housing 8

Focus on Research: Can Writing About Feelings Help People Cope With Cancer? 10

What Factors Led to the Development of Health Psychology? 10

The Nature of Illnesses Has Changed 10

Focus on Development: The Importance of Immunizations 13

The Biomedical Model Is UnTable to Fully Account for Health 13

Health-Care Costs Have Risen Dramatically 16

What Is the History of Health Psychology? 18

Focus on Culture: Health Means Different Things in Different Cultures 21

What Lies Ahead 21

CHAPTER 2 Research Methods 24

What Is the Scientific Method? 26

What Are Observational or Naturalistic Methods? 28

What Are Survey Methods? 32

What Are Experimental Methods? 35

Focus on Research: The Impact of Divorce on Life Expectancy 38

Focus on Development: The Link Between Breast-Feeding and Infant Illness 39

What Are Clinical Methods? 41

Psychology in the Real World: The Ethical Challenges of Conducting Research on Cancer Treatment 42

How Can We Evaluate Research Studies? 43

Internal Validity 43

Focus on Research: The Power of Mind-Set on Health 45

External Validity 47

What Is the Best Research Approach? 49

How Do Research Ethics Influence Scientific Studies? 51

Ethical Issues Relevant to Experimentation on Animals 54

CHAPTER 3 Theories of Health Behavior 58

What Are Continuum Theories of Health Behavior? 60

Health Belief Model 60

Focus on Research: Using “Friendship Bracelets” to Increase Condom Use 63

Theories of Reasoned Action/Planned Behavior 64

Focus on Culture: The Role of Individual and Social Factors on Health 65

Learning Theories 67

Focus on Development: Using Operant Conditioning to Improve Children’s Eating and Exercise Behavior 70

Focus on Research: Can Watching Television Cause Teenage Pregnancy? 71

Health Psychology in the Real World: Hollywood’s Responsibility for Smoking Deaths 72

Social Cognitive Theory 74

What Are Stage Models of Health Behavior Change? 78

Transtheoretical or Stages of Change Model 78

Precaution Adoption Process Model 83

How Should These Models Be Integrated and Extended? 86

CHAPTER 4 Stress 91

What Are the Main Sources of Stress? 93

How Is Stress Measured? 95

Self-Report Inventories 95

Focus on Research: Does Stress Cause Breast Cancer? 98

Physiological Measures 100

How Does Stress Influence Health? 102

Cannon’s Fight-or-Flight Response 102

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) 103

Updates to the Fight-or-Flight and GAS Models 105

What Are the Physical Consequences of Stress? 108

Nervous System 109

Endocrine System 110

Cardiovascular System 111

Focus on Development: Why the Early Years Really Matter 112

Immune System 115

Psychoneuroimmunology 118

Indirect Effects of Stress on Health 118

What Are the Psychological Consequences of Stress? 120

What Are Some Strategies for Managing Stress? 122

Coping Styles 122

Focus on Research: The Influence of Problem-Focused Coping on Health 125

Focus on Culture: Writing About Problems Helps Some People But Not All 130

Relaxation and Mindfulness 131

Humor 133

Exercise 134

Social Support 134

Religion 134

CHAPTER 5 Managing Stress: The Role of Personality and Social Support 142

What Personality Factors Are Associated With Good Health? 144

Positive States 145

Focus on Research: Why Positive People Are Less Likely to Get a Cold 145

Optimism 146

Conscientiousness 149

Focus on Development: The Powerful Influence of Childhood Personality on Adult Health-Related Behavior 150

Internal Locus of Control/Hardiness 150

What Personality Factors Lead to Unhealthy Behavior? 152

Neuroticism/Negative Affect 152

Type A Behavior 153

Hostility/DisagreeTableness 155

Explaining the Link Between Personality and Health 156

Stress 156

Physiological Mechanisms 158

Coping Strategies 159

Social Support 160

Health Habits 160

Self-Report 162

What Is Social Support? 163

Social Network 164

Perceived Social Support 165

Received Social Support 168

Focus on Culture: The Differential Presence and Benefits of Particular Types of Support 168

What Is the Link Between Social Support and Health? 169

Psychological Well-Being 169

Physical Well-Being 170

Focus on Research—The Effects of Social Support on Recovery from Surgery 171

How Does Social Support Lead to Better Health? 173

Cardiovascular System 174

Immune System 175

Neuroendocrine System 177

When Does Social Support Lead to Better Health? 177

Buffering Hypothesis 177

Direct Effects Hypothesis 180

Does Social Support Benefit Men and Women Equally? 182

What Factors Lead to the Social Support-Health Link? 183

CHAPTER 6 Injuries 188

What Is Injury? 189

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Contents xiii

How Does the Risk of Injury Vary Across the Life span? 190

Childhood 192

Focus on Culture: The Impact of Culture on Risk for Childhood Injuries 193

Adolescence and Young Adulthood 193

Adulthood 195

What Are the Leading Causes of Injuries? 195

Motor Vehicle Accidents 195

Poisoning 196

Suicide 197

Focus on Research: The Hazards of Owning a Firearm 199

Falls 199

Homicide 200

Focus on Research: Does Harry Potter Prevent Injuries in Children? 201

Focus on Development: The Prevalence of Child Abuse and Neglect 201

What Are the Strategies for Preventing Injuries? 202

Active Strategies 203

Health Psychology in the Real World: The Very Real Tragedy of Drunk Driving 205

Passive Strategies 207

Societal Changes 207

CHAPTER 7 Smoking and Alcohol Abuse 212

What Is the Prevalence of Smoking? 214

What Are the Health Consequences of Smoking? 214

Focus on Development: The Impact of Passive Smoking on Children 217

How Do Psychological Factors Lead to the Initiation of Smoking? 218

Focus on Research: The Hazards of Smoking in Movies 220

What Factors Lead to Continued Smoking? 221

Nicotine-Based Models 221

Affect-Regulation Model 222

Combined Models 224

What Are Some Strategies for Preventing Smoking? 225

What Are Some Strategies for Quitting Smoking? 229

What Is the Prevalence of Alcohol Use and Abuse? 234

Focus on Culture: The Impact of Culture on Alcohol Regulations, Consumption, and Consequences 235

What Are the Health Consequences of Alcohol Abuse? 235

Focus on Research: Why Drinking Alcohol Interferes With Condom Use 238

How Do Psychological Factors Lead to Alcohol Abuse? 239

Tension-Reduction Theory 239

Social Learning Theory 240

Personality 242

Biological/Genetic Factors 243

What Are Some Strategies for Preventing Alcohol Abuse? 244

What Are Some Strategies for Treating Alcohol Abuse? 246

Health Psychology in the Real World: The Very Real Consequences of Addiction 247

CHAPTER 8 Obesity and Eating Disorders 255

What Is Obesity? 257

What Are the Consequences of Obesity? 260

How Do Genetic Factors Cause Obesity? 262

How Do Psychological Factors Influence Eating (and Overeating)? 265

Internal-External Hypothesis 265

Mood Regulation 267

Restraint Theory 269

Sociocultural Factors 270

Focus on Research: Is Obesity Contagious? 271

Focus on Development: The Long-Lasting Impact of Prenatal Tasting 272

What Factors Help Prevent Obesity? 272

How Is Obesity Treated? 275

What Are Eating Disorders? 279

How Do Biological Factors Contribute to Eating Disorders? 282

How Do Psychological Factors Contribute to Eating Disorders? 282

Sociocultural Norms 283

Focus on Culture: Is the Thin Ideal Universal? 284

Family Dynamics 286

Personality 288

What Approaches Help Prevent Eating Disorders? 288

Focus on Research: The Benefits of Critiquing the Thin Ideal 291

What Approaches Help Treat Eating Disorders? 291

Health Psychology in the Real World: The Struggle to Recover From an

Eating Disorder 292

CHAPTER 9 The Experience and Management of Pain 298

Why Do We Care About Pain? 300

What Is Pain? 301

How Do We Experience Pain? 302

How Is Pain Measured? 307

Self-Report Measures 307

Behavioral Measures 309

Physiological Measures 310

How Do Psychosocial Factors Influence the Experience of Pain? 310

Stress 310

Learning 312

Focus on Culture: The Influence of Culture on the Experience and Expression of Pain 313

Cognition 314

Mood State 317

What Are Some Physical Methods of Controlling Pain? 318

Medication 319

Surgery 320

Physical Therapy/Exercise 320

Physical Stimulation 321

What Are Some Psychological Methods of Controlling Pain? 323

Focus on Research: Does Acupuncture Really Work to Reduce Pain? 324

Hypnosis 324

Biofeedback 326

Relaxation and Distraction 327

Focus on Research: Can Looking at Pictures of Loved Ones Reduce Pain? 328

Focus on Development: The Impact of Watching Movies on Pain Relief in Children 329

Cognitive Approaches 330

Behavior Therapy 334

Conclusions 336

Can Placebos Decrease Pain? 336

Factors That Influence the Effectiveness of Placebos 336

Physiological Mechanisms That Explain the Influence of Placebos 338

CHAPTER 10 Chronic Illness 344

What Are Chronic Diseases? 346

Focus on Culture: The Prevalence of Chronic Diseases Worldwide 347

What Are the Consequences of Having Chronic Illnesses? 348

Physical Problems 348

Social Problems 350

Focus on Development: How Do Children Cope With Having a Chronic Disease? 351

A Humorous Example of the Impact of Chronic Disease on Marital Relationships 353

Psychological Problems 354

Health Psychology in the Real World: The Shock of a Cancer Diagnosis 355

Reflection About the Benefits of Cancer By Lance Armstrong 360

What Factors Influence How People Manage Having a Chronic Illness? 361

Illness Intrusiveness 361

Type of Coping Used 362

Level of Social Support 364

How Can Psychological Interventions Help People Cope with Chronic Illness? 366

Education 366

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) 367

Social Support Groups 369

What Is Coronary Heart Disease? 371

How Do Psychological Factors Influence Coronary Heart Disease? 372

Focus on Research: Is Living in New York City Hazardous to Your Health? 375

How Can Psychological Interventions Help Reduce the Risk of Recurring Heart Attacks? 378

What Is Cancer? 380

How Do Psychosocial Factors Influence the Development of Cancer? 382

What Factors Predict Effective Coping with Cancer? 386

What Is HIV/AIDS? 387

How Do Psychological Factors Predict the Acquisition of HIV? 389

Focus on Research: The Hazards of Seeing HIV as Not Very Prevalent 390

How Do Psychological Factors Predict the Progression of HIV? 393

CHAPTER 11 Terminal Illness and Bereavement 399

When and How Do People Die? 401

How Do People Cope with Dying? 404

Stages of Death and Dying 405

Task-Work Approach 406

Stages of Death and Dying in Children 407

The Ethics of Assisted Suicide 408

Where Do People Die? 411

Hospitals 412

Nursing Homes/Long-Term Care Facilities 414

Home 414

Hospice Care 415

Focus on Research: The Impact of Hospice Care on the End-of-Life Experience 417

What are the Consequences of Bereavement? 419

Focus on Research: Why and When the Death of a Spouse Impacts Mortality 421

What Factors Influence the Experience of Bereavement? 422

Stages of Mourning 422

Influences on Grief 423

Coping with Bereavement 424

Focus on Culture: The Impact of Grief Processing Varies as a Function of Culture 427

Health Psychology in the Real World: What You Should—and Should Not—Say to Someone Who Is in Mourning 429

How Do People React to Different Types of Deaths? 432

Death of a Spouse 432

Death of a Parent 433

Death of a Child 434

Death of a Sibling 435

How Do Children Understand Death? 436

CHAPTER 12 Health-Care Interaction: Screening, Utilization, Adherence, and Relapse 441

What Is Screening? 443

The Predictors of Screening 445

The Costs and Benefits of Screening 446

Health Psychology in the Real World: The Struggle to Decide Whether to Test or Not to Test 447

Focus on Research: The Shifting Reaction to Testing Positive for Huntington’s Disease 451

Strategies for Increasing Screening 453

How Do Psychological Factors Influence Health-Care Utilization, Interaction, Hospitalization, and Burnout? 455

Health-Care Utilization 456

Patient-Practitioner Communication 463

Focus on Research: Differing Perspectives Between Patients and Physicians on Information Given 465

Focus on Culture: Attitudes Toward the Doctor-Patient Relationship Vary by Culture 467

The Experience of Hospitalization 469

Focus on Development: The Difficulties of Hospitalization on Children 470

The Experience of Burnout 474

What Predicts Adherence? 475

Causes of Nonadherence 476

Measuring Adherence 481

Strategies for Increasing Adherence 482

What Is Relapse? 485

Theories of Addiction 486

Triggers of Relapse 487

Strategies for Preventing Relapse 488

CHAPTER 13 Designing Persuasive Interventions 496

Are Emotional Appeals Effective? 498

The Use of Emotional Appeals 499

The Drawbacks of Fear-Based Appeals 500

Focus on Development: The Hazards of Fear-Based Approaches to Pregnancy Prevention 502

Making Fear-Based Appeals Work 503

Focus on Research: The Benefits of Self-Affirmation for Reducing Smoking 507

How Effective Are Interventions Based in Psychological Theories? 508

Prospect Theory 508

Cognitive Dissonance Theory 511

Attribution Theory 513

Learning Theories 514

Focus on Culture: The Role of a Radio Program in Reducing HIV Infection 517

Social Cognitive Theory 517

Theory of Planned Behavior 518

Focus on Research: The Power of Social Norms in Increasing Condom Use 519

Are Personally Relevant Messages the Most Effective? 519

Screening 520

Managing Pain and Chronic Disease 522

Smoking Cessation 524

Alcohol Use 526

Eating and Eating Disordered Behavior 527

Condom Use 529

What Questions Remain? 530

CHAPTER 14 Future Directions for Health Psychology 534

What Are the Contributions of Health Psychology? 536

What Are the Hot Topics in Health Psychology? 537

Preventing Health Problems 537

Making Ethical Medical Decisions 540

Focus on Research: Strategies for Increasing Organ Donation 543

Enhancing the Quality of Life 544

Health Psychology in the Real World: A Unique Approach to Conveying End-of-Life Preferences 546

Reducing Health-Care Costs 548

Focus on Culture: How Do Other Countries Handle Health Care? 548

What Are the Challenges for Health Psychology in the Future? 554

Decreasing Racial-Ethnic Differences in Health 554

Focus on Development: The Long-Term Hazards of Childhood Poverty 557

Focusing on the Predictors of Women’s Health 559

Focus on Research: Understanding the Decision to Vaccinate for HPV 560

Broadening the Focus to Other Cultures 561

What Can You Do With a Degree in Health Psychology? 565

What Is the “Take Home” Point? 566